Spiders are invertebrates, which means they don't have backbones. These small creatures help plants reproduce by pollinating them. They also help recycle dead trees and animals back into the earth. They are also a vital source of food for birds, fish, and small mammals. Without invertebrates, like spiders and insects, many other living things would not survive.Spiders are not insects. Insects have three body parts and six legs.Spiders have eight legs and two body parts, the abdomen and the thorax.Spiders have silk spinning glands called spinnerets, at the tip of theirabdomen.Not all spiders spin webs. Spiders belong to the Arachnid family.There are more than 30,000 species of spiders.Spiders are oviparous, which means their babies come from eggs.Most spiders have either six or eight eyes.Most spiders have fangs, through which venom is ejected. Opiliones are commonly called shepherd spiders, harvest spiders or harvestmen.The term harvestmen or harvest spiders was a result of them being seen only during harvesting time. They are also referred to as daddy long legs but should not be confused with similarly named spiders, the Pholcidae. Opiliones are not spiders and have no spinning organs, fangs or venom glands and are harmless to man.
Wasps & Bees
Control of NestsThe first step in wasp or bee control is to correctly identify the insect and locate its nesting site. An experienced pest control service may provide wasp or bee control service or you can use the following information to attempt to control them yourself. Wasps The best time of the year to control wasps is in June after the queen has established her colony and while the colony is still small. But because nests are small, they are also harder to find. The best time of the day to control wasp nests is at night, when they are less active.Exposed wasp nestsWasp nests that are visible and near human activity can pose a potential problem. If there is a concern about stings, you should eradicate the nest.Apply a ready-to-use aerosol "wasp and hornet spray" into the entrance of the nest during late evening according to label directions. To avoid pesticide falling down on yourself do not stand directly under the nest and spray up. Plan your escape route. Be very careful if you must climb a ladder. If live wasps are still observed the next day, repeat the treatment.Mechanical control without insecticides is possible for small, exposed nests. At night, cover the nest with a large, heavy, plastic bag and seal it shut. Cut the nest from the tree and freeze it. Use caution: there is more risk involved in this procedure than in spraying the nest.Ground wasp nestsWhen yellowjackets are found nesting in the ground, first try pouring a soap and water solution into the entrance. Many types of soap will work, including dish and laundry soap. (Do this at night)If that doesn't work, apply an insecticide into the nest opening. Be sure you use a product that is registered for use in lawns or soil. After you are sure all the wasps have been exterminated, cover the nest entrance with soil.Concealed wasp nestsThe most challenging nests to control are those that are concealed in voids behind walls or in attics. Often, the only evidence of the nest is wasps flying back and forth through a crack or hole in the home. It may be wise to hire someone experienced to exterminate a wasp nest. Contact Tyrone Pest control. Aerosol insecticides usually do not work very well on hidden nests. Old wasp nestsOld nests are not reused by wasps. Wasp nests found during winter or early spring are old nests from the previous summer. There are no live wasps in the nest; they have already left or died inside it. The nest can be safely removed and disposed of if desired.Honey bee nestsHoney bees are normally housed in manufactured hives and managed by beekeepers. In some instances wild colonies of honey bees may nest in hollow trees or in wall voids. Honey bees may become a nuisance in the spring at bird feeders and swimming pools as they forage for water. They seldom, if ever, are a nuisance in summer or early fall.Wild colonies can be treated with the same insecticides and methods as described for exposed or concealed wasp nests. Control of honey bee nests can be challenging. Consider hiring an experienced pest control service if a honey bee job appears too difficult. Bumble bee nestsWhen a bumble bee nest is a nuisance, treat it with the same insecticides and methods as described for ground-nesting or concealed wasp nests.Ground-nesting beesThere are other types of bees you may encounter that do not form colonies. Solitary andrenid bees are common ground-nesting bees. They are also important pollinators of native plants. They usually nest in sun-exposed, dry areas of yards. Although there is just one bee per nest, many of these bees typically nest close to each other. They are usually most conspicuous to the public during spring. Although many ground-nesting bees may be found flying around their nests in the spring, they are gentle and very rarely sting people. Sprinkling the area of their nests with water may be enough to encourage them to move as they avoid damp areas. The same insecticides that control ground-nesting yellowjackets and bumble bees are effective against and renid bees.Wasps and Outdoor Activities During Late Summer and FallDuring late summer and fall, yellow jackets become aggressive scavengers and frequently disrupt outside activities where food or drink is served. Control of scavenging wasps is difficult, as there are no insecticides that effectively repel or discourage them.The best strategy is to minimize attracting them. Wait to serve food and drink until people are ready to eat. Promptly put away food when done and throw garbage into a container with a tightly fitting lid. Examine glasses, cans, and other containers before drinking from them to check for wasps that may have flown inside. If a wasp flies to your food, wait for it to fly away or gently brush it away. If you crush them they will give off an alarm scent that will attract others wasps.WASP TRAPSMany people make the mistake of placing wasp traps in areas of human activity. This of course attracts more wasps. Place the traps in a wide circle 40 or 50 feet away from the area you want to be wasp free. Sweet smelling liquids are the best attractant. (Carbonated soda pop) Placing traps early in the season will have more effect at reducing the population later in the summer.To make a cheap and effective wasp trap see bottom of the page. Food Preferences Wasps are beneficial because they prey on many insects, including caterpillars, flies, crickets, and other pests. During late summer and fall, they are more interested in collecting sweets and other carbohydrates. Some wasps may become aggressive scavengers around human food and may be common around outdoor activities where food or drinks are served.Bees feed only on nectar (carbohydrates) and pollen (protein) from flowers. Honey bees sometimes visit trash cans and soft-drink containers to feed on sugary foods.Nesting SitesYellowjackets, baldfaced hornets, and paper wasps make nests from a papery pulp comprised of chewed-up wood fibers mixed with saliva. Yellowjacket and baldfaced hornet nests consist of a series of rounded combs stacked in tiers. These combs are covered by an envelope consisting of several layers of pulp.Yellowjackets commonly build nests below ground in old rodent burrows or other cavities. They can also build nests in trees, shrubs, under eaves, and inside attics or wall voids . Baldfaced hornets commonly build nests in the open in trees as well as under eaves and along the sides of buildings.Honey bees make a series of vertical honey combs made of wax. Their colonies are mostly in manufactured hives but they do occasionally nest in cavities in large trees, voids in building walls, or other protected areas.Bumble bees use old mice burrows, cavities in buildings, and other locations to make their nests. Like honey bees, bumble bees make cells of wax.Life Cycle of Wasps and BeesWasps and bumble bees have annual colonies that last for only one year. The colony dies in the fall with only the newly produced queens surviving the winter. The new queens leave their nests during late summer and mate with males. The queens then seek out overwintering sites, such as under loose bark, in rotted logs, under siding or tile, and in other small crevices and spaces, where they become dormant. These queens become active the following spring when temperatures warm. They search for favorable nesting sites to construct new nests. They do not reuse old nests.Honey bees are perennial insects with colonies that survive more than one year. Honey bees form a cluster when hive temperatures approach 57° F. As the temperature drops, the cluster of bees becomes more compact. Bees inside this mass consume honey and generate heat so that those in the cluster do not freeze. As long as honey is available in the cluster, a strong colony can withstand temperatures down to -30° F. or lower for extended periods.
Head lice are tiny insects that live on the scalp, where they lay their eggs. Head lice do not spread disease. Having head lice does not mean you are not clean.What do head lice look like? Lice have 3 stages – the egg (nit), the nymph and the adult.Nits are whitish-grey, tan or yellow ovals, approximately the size of a grain of sand. They stick to the hair close to the scalp and can look like dandruff. Nits hatch in 9 to 10 days.Nymphs are baby lice. They look like adult lice but are smaller.Adult lice are approximately the size of a sesame seed and are hard to see. Adult lice can live for up to 30 days on a person’s head, but they die within 3 days away from the scalp. How do they spread?Head lice spread easily, especially where people are in close contact. They are very common among school-aged children or children attending child care.Head lice spread through direct hair-to-hair contact or indirectly by sharing things like hats, combs, hairbrushes and headphones.Head lice don’t fly or hop, but do crawl very quickly. Head lice that live on people can’t live on pets, such as cats or dogs. How do you know you have head lice? One of the first signs of head lice is an itchy scalp. But it is possible to have head lice without any symptoms. If you think your child has head lice, check his hair for nits right away, then again after 1 week and after 2 weeks.How do I check for head lice?To confirm a case of head lice, you need to find live lice. Children can have a few nits without actually having a case of head lice. Usually children have no more than 10 to 20 live lice.Good lighting is important when you are checking.Head lice move fast and are hard to see. They are usually found very close to the scalp, at the bottom of the neck and behind the ears.To look for nits, part hair in small sections, moving from one side of the head to the other. Check carefully, looking close to the scalp. How can head lice be treated? Insecticides are chemicals that kill insects (bugs). In Canada, 3 insecticides are approved to treat head lice:pyrethrin (found in R&C Shampoo + Conditioner) permethrin (Nix Creme Rinse or Kwellada-P Creme Rinse) lindane (Hexit Shampoo or PMS-Lindane Shampoo).Pyrethrin and permethrin are safe when used on humans. However, lindane can be toxic (poisonous).Products with lindane should not be used on infants or young children younger than 2 years of age. You don’t need a prescription for these products.Follow package directions carefully.Don’t leave the shampoo or rinse in the hair longer than directed. Rinse hair well with cool water after the treatment. It’s best to rinse over a sink, not in the bath or shower, so that other parts of the body don’t come in contact with the product.Repeat the treatment after 7 to 10 days.Sometimes, these treatments can make the scalp itchy or can leave a mild burning feeling. If your child is scratching after treatment, it does not necessarily mean the lice are back.A noninsecticidal product called isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone (Resultz) has also been approved for use in Canada, but it should only be used in children 4 years of age and older:It works by breaking down the waxy exoskeleton (‘skin’) of lice. The lice get dehydrated and die.Apply to a dry scalp and rinse after 10 min. Repeat after 1 week.Do not treat anyone with a head lice product unless you find lice in their hair. Check all family members if someone in the house has head lice.What about other treatments?Some people use home remedies such as mayonnaise, petroleum jelly, olive oil, vinegar or margarine. Although these products may make it hard for lice to breathe, they probably won’t kill them. There is very little evidence that wet combing works (removing lice by combing wet hair with a fine-tooth comb). There is no evidence that products such as tea tree oil or aromatherapy work to treat head lice. Never use gasoline or kerosene. These products can be extremely dangerous. Should the house be disinfected if someone has head lice? Because head lice don’t live long off the scalp, there is no need for extra cleaning.To get rid of lice or nits from items like hats or pillowcases:Wash the items in hot water and dry in a hot dryer for 15 min; or Store the items in an airtight plastic bag for 2 weeks. Should children with head lice stay home from school? Children with head lice should be treated and can attend school or child care as usual.‘No-nit’ policies that keep children with head lice away from school are not necessary because:Head lice are common among young children. Head lice don’t spread disease.Cases of head lice are often misdiagnosed.Children can have head lice for several weeks with no symptoms. If your child has head lice, treat it. Teach your child to avoid head-to-head contact with other children until the lice are gone. Children should not share combs, hairbrushes, caps, hats or hair ornaments.
Scabies is an itchy, highly contagious skin condition caused by an infestation by the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Mites are small eight-legged parasites (in contrast to insects, which have six legs). They are tiny, just 1/3 millimeter long, and burrow into the skin to produce intense itching, which tends to be worse at night. The mites that infest humans are female and are 0.3 mm-0.4 mm long; the males are about half this size. Scabies mites can be seen with a magnifying glass or microscope. The scabies mites crawl but are unable to fly or jump. They are immobile at temperatures below 20 C, although they may survive for prolonged periods at these temperatures.Scabies infestation occurs worldwide and is very common. It has been estimated that worldwide, about 300 million cases occur each year. Human scabies has been reported for over 2,500 years. Scabies has been reported to occur in epidemics in nursing homes, hospitals, long-term care facilities, and other institutions. In the U.S., it is seen frequently in the homeless population but occurs episodically in other populations of all socioeconomic groups as well.How do you get scabies?Direct skin-to-skin contact is the mode of transmission. Scabies mites are very sensitive to their environment. They can only live off of a host body for 24-36 hours under most conditions. Transmission of the mites involves close person-to-person contact of the skin-to-skin variety. It is hard, if not impossible, to catch scabies by shaking hands, hanging your coat next to someone who has it, or even sharing bedclothes that had mites in them the night before. Sexual physical contact, however, can transmit the disease. In fact, sexual contact is the most common form of transmission among sexually active young people, and scabies has been considered by many to be a sexually transmitted disease (STD). However, other forms of physical contact, such as mothers hugging their children, are sufficient to spread the mites. Over time, close friends and relatives can contract it this way, too. School settings typically do not provide the level of prolonged personal contact necessary for transmission of the mites.Can you catch scabies from a dog or cat?Dogs and cats are infected by different types of mites than those which infect humans. Animals are not a source of spread of human scabies. Scabies on dogs is called mange. When canine or feline mites land on human skin, they fail to thrive and produce only a mild itch that goes away on its own. This is unlike human scabies which gets worse and worse unless the condition is treated.What does scabies look like? What are the signs and symptoms of scabies?Scabies produces a skin rash composed of small red bumps and blisters and affects specific areas of the body. Scabies may involve the webs between the fingers, the wrists and the backs of the elbows, the knees, around the waist and umbilicus, the axillary folds, the areas around the nipples, the sides and backs of the feet, the genital area, and the buttocks. The bumps (medically termed papules) may contain blood crusts. It is helpful to know that not every bump is a bug. In most cases of scabies affecting otherwise healthy adults, there are no more than 10-15 live mites even if there are hundreds of bumps and pimples.The scabies rash is often apparent on the head, face, neck, palms, and soles of the feet in infants and very young children but usually not in adults and older children.Textbook descriptions of scabies always mention "burrows" or "tunnels." These are tiny threadlike projections, ranging from 2 mm-15 mm long, which appear as thin gray, brown, or red lines in affected areas. The burrows can be very difficult to see. Often mistaken for burrows are linear scratch marks that are large and dramatic and appear in people with any itchy skin condition. Scratching actually destroys burrows.What does scabies feel like?It is important to note that symptoms may not appear for up to two months after being infested with the scabies mite. Even though symptoms do not occur, the infested person is still able to spread scabies during this time. When symptoms develop, itching is the most common symptom of scabies. The itch of scabies is insidious and relentless. The itch is typically worse at night. For the first weeks, the itch is subtle. It then gradually becomes more intense until, after a month or two, sleep becomes almost impossible.What makes the itch of scabies distinctive is its relentless quality, at least after several weeks. Other itchy skin conditions -- eczema, hives, and so forth -- tend to produce symptoms that wax and wane. These types of itch may keep people from falling asleep at night for a little while, but they rarely prevent sleep or awaken the sufferer in the middle of the night.What is the treatment for a scabies infestation?Curing scabies is rather easy with the administration of prescription scabicide drugs. There are no approved over-the-counter preparations that have been proved to be effective in eliminating scabies. The following steps should be included in the treatment of scabies: Apply a mite-killer like permethrin (Elimite). These creams are applied from the neck down, left on overnight, then washed off. This application is usually repeated in seven days. Permethrin is approved for use in people 2 months of age and older. An alternative treatment is 1 ounce of a 1% lotion or 30 grams of cream of lindane, applied from the neck down and washed off after approximately eight hours. Since lindane can cause seizures when it is absorbed through the skin, it should not be used if skin is significantly irritated or wet, such as with extensive skin disease, rash, or after a bath. As an additional precaution, lindane should not be used in pregnant or nursing women, the elderly, people with skin sores at the site of the application, children younger than 2 years of age, or people who weigh less than 110 pounds. Lindane is not a first-line treatment and is only recommended if patients cannot tolerate other therapies or if other therapies have not been effective. Ivermectin, an oral medication, is an antiparasitic medication that has also been shown to be an effective scabicide, although it is not FDA-approved for this use. The CDC recommends taking this drug at a dosage of 200 micrograms per kilogram body weight as a single dose, followed by a repeat dose two weeks later. Although taking a drug by mouth is more convenient than application of the cream, ivermectin has a greater risk of toxic side effects than permethrin and has not been shown to be superior to permethrin in eradicating scabies. It is typically used only when topical medications have failed or when the patient cannot tolerate them.Crotamiton lotion 10% and cream 10% (Eurax, Crotan) is a another drug that has been approved for the treatment of scabies in adults, but it is not approved for use in children. However, treatment failures have been documented with the use of crotamiton.Sulfur in petrolatum applied as a cream or ointment is one of the earliest known treatments for scabies. It has not been approved by the FDA for this use, and sulfur should only be used when permethrin, lindane, or ivermectin cannot be tolerated. However, sulfur is safe for use in pregnant women and infants.Antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), can be useful in helping provide relief from itching. Sometimes, a short course of topical or oral steroids is prescribed to help control the itching.Wash linens and bedclothes in hot water. Because mites don't live long away from the body, it is not necessary to dry clean the whole wardrobe, spray furniture and rugs, and so forth. Treat sexual contacts or relevant family members (who either have either symptoms or have the kind of relationship that makes transmission likely).Just as the itch of scabies takes a while to reach a crescendo, it takes a few days to subside after treatment. After a week or two, relief is dramatic. If that doesn't happen, the diagnosis of scabies must be questioned.
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